Friday, September 14, 2007

Schwarze Galle

Bei meiner Recherche zu Melancholie bin ich auf den "schwarzen Gallensaft" gestoßen. So heißt die wörtliche Übersetzung von Melancholie. Der Begriff tauchte in der antiken griechischen Medizin gut ein halbes Jahrtausend vor Christi Geburt auf.(1) Er ist einer der vier "Säfte" in der Humoralpathalogie. So lautet der Fachbegriff für Lehre der 4 Temperamente auch die 4-Säfte Lehre genannt. Besitzt der Mensch ein Übermaß an schwarzer Galle und "... wird sie übermäßig erwärmt ruft sie übersteigerte Hochgefühle wie Gesang ... hervor."(2) Was ich unweigerlich mit meinem Schlagwort Stimmungsschwankung in Verbindung bringe. (Ich werde die Schlagwörter später an entsprechender Stelle mal versuchen aufzulisten).
Nun jedoch erstmal zur Humoralpathalogie. Was sind die anderen 3 „Säfte“? Zum einen das Blut (sanguis), der Schleim (phlegma) und die gelbe Galle (cholera). Bereits bei den Pythagoreen gab es ein heilige Vierheit der naturphilosophischen Betrachtungen. Es gibt: Feuer, Wasser, Luft, Erde, und auf den Kosmos bezogen: Sonne, Meer, Himmel und Erde. Melancholie wird der Erde zugeordnet. Sie steht auch für den Herbst und das Erwachsenalter. Wobei ich gerade bei einer Alterszuweisung von unterschiedliche Ansichten gelesen habe. Andere sehen es eher im Jugendalter, worauf ich an andere Stelle noch mal zurückkommen werde. Bei der schwarzen Galle ist besonders interessant, dass sie im Gegensatz zu den anderen 3 „Säften“ nicht im menschlichen Körper vorkommt.(3) Sie ist demnach eine Fehlkonzeption in sich und „..gewissermaßen das „Schwarze Loch“ im Universum der menschlichen Selbsterkundung und Selbsterkenntnis.“(4) Melancholie dieses Gemisch aus scheinbar grundloser Traurigkeit, unentwegter Grübelei und Pessimismus mit Hang zum romantischen, hat keine Basis. Auch ist es das einzige der 4 Temperamente, welches reflexiv ist. Vielleicht ist es auch gerade der Schmerz der Reflexion. Während alle anderen Temperamente einen Bezug zur Welt einnehmen und ein Verhältnis ihr gegenüber zum Ausdruck bringen, stellt die Melancholie ein Verhältnis zu sich selbst dar. Was Mich nicht unmittelbar betrifft interessiert mich auch nicht! Nur wenn es um das eigene Selbst geht, erfährt enorme Wichtigkeit.(5)
Selbstverständlich ist auch mir das nicht fremd, wohl eher das Gegenteil. Demnächst folgt noch einiges mehr zum Thema Melancholie. So werde ich kurz auf die Weiterentwicklung seit der Antike eingehen. Hierbei handelt es sich um den religiös geprägten Begriff der Acedia und den Begriff der Hypochondrie wie er in der Zeit der Aufklärung Einzug fand. Im Allgemeinen möchte ich das Thema Melancholie als Gefühl noch intensiver beleuchten. Werde dabei die Trauer als Ausgangspunkt nehmen, die gewissermaßen Teil wenn nicht Hauptbestandteil ist.
Warum also “schwarze Galle”? Wegen der Bilder und Symboliken die ich in meine Arbeite einfließen lassen möchte. Ich habe bisher gerne Elemente gesammelt oder Bilder und Szenen, die ich dann verbunden habe. Hier nun sehe ich menschliche Körper unterschiedlich stark mit schwarzer, zähflüssiger Gallenflüssigkeit gefüllt. Vielleicht quillt es dem einem schon aus den Ohren, der Nase, den Mund oder den Augen. Ich sehe es fließen! Ein pechschwarzes Bächlein durch ein saftig grünes Tal, in dem lauter bunte Blumen blühen, farbenprächtige Vögel sich auf überwältigenden Baumkronen niederlassen. (Ja, theatralisch kommt auch unter meinen Schlagwörtern vor.) Man dümpelt dahin in seiner Schwermut ohne dabei das Schöne wahrzunehmen. Gleichzeitig kann aber gerade das Schöne auch der Anlass zur Traurigkeit sein.
Ich mag die Idee der schwarzen Galle. Schwarz ist düster, schwer und bildet einen schönen Kontrast zu anderen Farben.

1 - Lambrecht, Roland (1996): Der Geist der Melancholie. S. 32, München, Wilhelm Fink Verlag

2 - Demmerling, Christoph; Landweer, Hilge (2007): Philosophie der Gefühle. Von Achtung bis Zorn. S. 271, Weimar, Verlag J.B. Metzler Stuttgart

3 - Lambrecht, Roland (1996): Der Geist der Melancholie. S. 33, München, Wilhelm Fink Verlag

4 - ebd. S. 32
5 - ebd. S. 12

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